Ireland and the UK share a chequered history. In 1801, Great Britain annexed the Kingdom of Ireland under the Act of Union; in 1921, the Anglo-Irish Treaty established the Irish Free State, an independent dominion of the British crown partitioned from Northern Ireland; and in 1949, the Republic of Ireland became fully independent from the UK.

In 1993, the U.S. Congress and President Clinton apologized for overthrowing the Hawaiian Kingdom in 1893 and acknowledged that the U.S. annexed Hawaii unlawfully.

Albert Einstein renounced his German citizenship in the German Kingdom of Württemberg to avoid military service in 1896 and became stateless for 5 years. He acquired Swiss citizenship in February 1901, Austrian citizenship in 1911, and American citizenship in 1940.