Flamingos can sleep in ponds that freeze around their legs at night, drink boiling water, and survive conditions that expose them to arsenic and poisonous gases.

In the 60s, the Fisher Pen Company reportedly invested $1 million to create a “space pen,” one that could write upside-down, in frigid or roasting conditions. They sold 400 units to NASA and 100 to the Soviet Union.

DNA decays with increasing rapidity in the presence of heat, water, sunlight, and oxygen. Under the most ideal conditions, DNA can theoretically survive for a maximum of one million years.

Floating cities above the clouds of Venus may be our best bet for becoming a two-planet species. Conditions there are so similar to Earth a human wouldn’t need a pressurized suit, the gravity is similar and transit times are shorter than to Mars.