“Evil” behaviours can be categorised into four basic groups: machiavellianism, psychopathy, sadism and narcissism. They are far from being unique to our species.

Lions communicate through a range of behaviours and their expressive movements are very highly developed. They will perform peaceful tactile actions such as licking each other and rubbing heads. Head rubbing, or nuzzling, is a common greeting behaviour for lions. They also communicate through a variety of vocalisations including purrs, snarls, miaws and hissing. Their vocalisations also vary in intensity and pitch.